Kapitalisierungsstruktur

Was ist Kapitalisierungsstruktur?

Die Kapitalisierungsstruktur bezieht sich auf den Anteil von Fremd- und Eigenkapital an der Kapitalkonfiguration eines Unternehmens. Kapital ist die Art und Weise, wie sich ein Unternehmen selbst finanziert. Eigenkapital ist ein Stück Eigentum an dem Unternehmen. Dies geschieht normalerweise durch das Unternehmen, das Aktien ausgibt. Schulden sind Kredite, die ein Investor an das Unternehmen ausgibt. Diese Darlehen erfolgen in der Regel in Form einer Anleiheemission. Die Kapitalstruktur zeigt, wie viel der Finanzierung eines Unternehmens durch die Ausgabe von Eigentumsanteilen oder durch die Aufnahme von Darlehen gewährt wurde.

Aktien und Anleihen wirken sich jeweils unterschiedlich auf die Finanzen, gezahlten Steuern und Verpflichtungen des Unternehmens für künftige Einnahmen aus. Die Kapitalisierungsstruktur eines Unternehmens hat einen wesentlichen Einfluss auf die Messung seiner Rentabilität und Finanzkraft, wie z. B. die Nettogewinnmarge, die Eigenkapitalrendite, die Verschuldungsquote, die Zinsdeckung usw.

Die Kapitalisierungsstruktur wird auch als Kapitalstruktur oder Cap-Struktur bezeichnet.

Types of Capitalization Structures

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.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.group-label-title.header {
font-weight: 700;
margin-bottom: 4px;
max-width: 100%;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.group-label.text-label,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.group-label.text-label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.group-label.text-label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.group-label.text-label {
font-weight: 400;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.group-label.inner,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.group-label.inner,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.group-label.inner,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.group-label.inner {
display: -webkit-box;
display: -ms-flexbox;
display: flex;
-webkit-box-orient: vertical;
-webkit-box-direction: normal;
-ms-flex-direction: column;
flex-direction: column;
-webkit-box-pack: center;
-ms-flex-pack: center;
justify-content: center;
-webkit-box-align: center;
-ms-flex-align: center;
align-items: center;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.color-key,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.color-key,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.color-key,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.color-key {
position: absolute;
top: 0;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.color-key.stop,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.color-key.stop,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.color-key.stop,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.color-key.stop {
display: -webkit-box;
display: -ms-flexbox;
display: flex;
margin-bottom: 2px;
-webkit-transition: 0.2s opacity ease-in-out;
transition: 0.2s opacity ease-in-out;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.color-key.stop-swatch,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.color-key.stop-swatch,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.color-key.stop-swatch,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.color-key.stop-swatch {
width: 15px;
height: 15px;
margin-right: 5px;
-webkit-box-flex: 0;
-ms-flex: 0 0 auto;
flex: 0 0 auto;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.color-key.stop-label,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.color-key.stop-label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.color-key.stop-label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.color-key.stop-label {
font-size: 13px;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.color-key.left,
.chart.vis-d3-pies.color-key.right,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.color-key.left,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.color-key.right,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.color-key.left,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.color-key.right,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.color-key.left,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.color-key.right {
max-width: 40%;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.color-key.left,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.color-key.left,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.color-key.left,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.color-key.left {
padding: 5px 10px 0 0;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.color-key.right,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.color-key.right,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.color-key.right,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.color-key.right {
padding: 5px 0 0 10px;
right: 0;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.color-key.horizontal.top,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.color-key.horizontal.top,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.color-key.horizontal.top,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.color-key.horizontal.top {
padding: 0 0 15px 0;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.color-key.horizontal.bottom,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.color-key.horizontal.bottom,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.color-key.horizontal.bottom,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.color-key.horizontal.bottom {
padding: 20px 0 0 0;
top: auto;
bottom: 0;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.color-key.horizontal.stops,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.color-key.horizontal.stops,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.color-key.horizontal.stops,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.color-key.horizontal.stops {
display: -webkit-box;
display: -ms-flexbox;
display: flex;
-ms-flex-wrap: wrap;
flex-wrap: wrap;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.color-key.horizontal.stop,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.color-key.horizontal.stop,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.color-key.horizontal.stop,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.color-key.horizontal.stop {
margin-right: 1em;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.color-key.horizontal.stack.stops,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.color-key.horizontal.stack.stops,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.color-key.horizontal.stack.stops,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.color-key.horizontal.stack.stops {
display: block;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.color-key.horizontal.stack.stop,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.color-key.horizontal.stack.stop,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.color-key.horizontal.stack.stop,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.color-key.horizontal.stack.stop {
margin-right: 0;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.footer-label-container,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.footer-label-container,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.footer-label-container,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.footer-label-container {
display: -webkit-box;
display: -ms-flexbox;
display: flex;
-ms-flex-wrap: wrap;
flex-wrap: wrap;
font-size: 13px;
margin: 20px 0 0;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.footer-label-container.label,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.footer-label-container.label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.footer-label-container.label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.footer-label-container.label {
display: -webkit-box;
display: -ms-flexbox;
display: flex;
-webkit-box-align: center;
-ms-flex-align: center;
align-items: center;
margin: 0 10px 5px 0;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.footer-label-container.num,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.footer-label-container.num,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.footer-label-container.num,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.footer-label-container.num {
margin: 0 5px 0 0;
background: #eee;
-webkit-box-flex: 1;
-ms-flex: 1 0 auto;
flex: 1 0 auto;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.defined-highlight.slice,
.chart.vis-d3-pies.defined-highlight.label,
.chart.vis-d3-pies.defined-highlight.stop,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.defined-highlight.slice,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.defined-highlight.label,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.defined-highlight.stop,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.defined-highlight.slice,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.defined-highlight.label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.defined-highlight.stop,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.defined-highlight.slice,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.defined-highlight.label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.defined-highlight.stop {
opacity: 0.6;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.defined-highlight.label.center-label,
.chart.vis-d3-pies.defined-highlight.label.group-label,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.defined-highlight.label.center-label,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.defined-highlight.label.group-label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.defined-highlight.label.center-label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.defined-highlight.label.group-label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.defined-highlight.label.center-label,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.defined-highlight.label.group-label {
opacity: 1;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.defined-highlight.line-group,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.defined-highlight.line-group,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.defined-highlight.line-group,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.defined-highlight.line-group {
opacity: 0.2;
}
.chart.vis-d3-pies.defined-highlight.slice.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-pies.defined-highlight.label.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-pies.defined-highlight.stop.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-pies.defined-highlight.line-group.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.defined-highlight.slice.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.defined-highlight.label.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.defined-highlight.stop.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-donuts.defined-highlight.line-group.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.defined-highlight.slice.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.defined-highlight.label.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.defined-highlight.stop.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-pies.defined-highlight.line-group.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.defined-highlight.slice.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.defined-highlight.label.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.defined-highlight.stop.highlight-element,
.chart.vis-d3-multiple-donuts.defined-highlight.line-group.highlight-element {
opacity: 1;
font-weight: 700;
}
.chart.png-export.dw-chart-footer.static-image,
.chart.png-export.dw-chart-footer.chart-action-data,
.chart.png-export.dw-chart-footer.dw-data-link {
display: none!important;
}
.chart.png-export a {
color: unset!important;
}
.x-tick-values span,
.y-tick-values span,
.direct-value-label:not(.inverted) span,
.legend-text span,
.x-tick-values tspan,
.y-tick-values tspan,
.y-tick-values {
color: #191919!important;
fill: #191919!important;
}
.vis-d3-bars-stacked.bc-grid {
z-index: 0!important;
}
.vis-d3-bars-stacked.y-axis {
background-color: #191919!important;
}
.vis-d3-bars-stacked.x-gridline {
background-color: #cecece!important;
}
.legend-text.label {
vertical-align: middle!important;
}
.chart a {
color: #2c40d0;
}
a.source {
text-decoration: none;
}

Types of Capitalization Structures

Firms can either issue either more debt or equity to fund its operations. By issuing equity, firms give up some ownership in the company without the need to pay back investors; by issuing debt, companies increase their leverage by needing to pay back investors. A company’s debt-to-equity ratio is a measure of risk for investors.

AssetsDebtEquity

Source:
Corporate Finance Institute

Chart:

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